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INDIVIDUALISM AND THE STATE IN CHINA

Fulbright­Hays Group Projects Abroad to China

sponsored by
Illinois Consortium for International Studies and Programs (ICISP), The University of Chicago

June 13 ­ July 16, 1994

William Parish, University of Chicago, Coordinator
P. G. Misty Sheehan, College of DuPage, Co­Coordinator

The Fulbright­Hays experience focused on "Individualism and the State in China" for two reasons. U.S. education agencies and representatives of business, reiterate the need for American students to better understand world economic and political systems, particularly those of East Asia, which have a direct impart on the economic well­being of the nation. At the same time that educators observe the rising power of Pacific rim nations and the immediate employment impact that these counties are having on U.S. students, they report both growing student apathy toward world affairs and escalating racial tension with newly­arrived Asian populations.

Teaching in colleges in the United States in the 1990’s challenges the instructor to inspire students who may be discipline problems; who may have poor study skills and a sense of ennui or malaise and an inability to see where they can function effectively in the adult world. Some students are in danger of dropping out of the educational process altogether and becoming a burden on the American social structure rather than developing talents which would enable them to contribute to changing society. As a result instructors spend considerable energy to motivate students, to enable them to value their own judgment, to develop successful decision­making skills, to establish effective goals, and to involve their interest in the tasks necessary for completion of goals.

In contrast, students in China today are highly motivated and are an effective part of the dramatic economic development of Guangdong Province and others areas of China. For this reason ICISP has chosen the topic of individualism. The content and activities of the project will be presented to the participants to build upon and expand their conceptions of the individual and his relationship to social forces. What motives the Chinese student that is lacking in the American college student?

Superficially, it appears that Confucian ideals subordinate the individual to the honor of family and state, but individual action appears to be a major factor in the economic power of both mainland China and Taiwan. What is the relationship of the individual to the state in the achievement of individual economic, sociological and psychological goals?

The objectives of the experience were to utilize the exploration of the tension between individual and collective action in China to:

1. Revitalize classroom teaching through the introduction of comparative themes which foster critical thinking about cultures on the part of students.

2. Explore conceptions of the individual and his or her relationship to the forces of control in society in a traditional culture in China, under Communism and to contrast this experience with the newly emerging business culture on the Chinese mainland, with the export­oriented business culture in Taiwan, and with the business culture of the United S tates .

3. Establish a team of educational consultants who will guide colleagues and assist local secondary school faculty in developing course modules and resources on China.

4. Develop instructional materials, modules, units, and teaching strategies to be tested in participants’ classes in a variety of disciplines and courses that can be shared with others.

5. Impact Illinois minority communities and economic divisions through outreach to city, suburban, and rural community colleges and economic divisions.

6. Collect materials, artifacts, photos and slides that can be reproduced and distributed to all member ICISP colleges through ICISP.

7. Establish faculty and/or student exchanges with one or more community colleges on the mainland and in Taiwan.

The unique design of the project to achieve these objectives involved multi­year training and production commitment from the participants. University of Chicago faculty led two ICISP seminars for faculty in each 19921993 academic years and 1993­1994 academic years. A pre­departure workshop weekend continued the discussions with University of Chicago scholars.

The group studied the central theme of the relationship between individual action and state control at the History Department of Beijing University. They visited Beijing and Guangzhou, representing the state and its burgeoning trade in the 20th century under Communism, and Xian and Dunhuang for an understanding of the historical process. Experiencing Taiwan’s model of economic success and its culture with scholars from Academia Sinica and other Taipei institutions completed the overseas agenda. Fulbright­Hays funded 60% of the overseas costs with the other costs supported by the participants’ institutions and/or the participants themselves. Tang Wen Fang of University of Pittsburgh coordinated the arrangements with Beijing University and the Coordination Council on North American Affairs in Chicago coordinated the arrangements in Taipei.

Lectures and visits addressed the individual as perceived in sociology, history, economic theory, political theory, religion, the visual arts, literature, and theatre as the individualism/group issue runs throughout all Chinese and American social institutions. The Taiwan and mainland portions of the field experience provided parallel lectures on the economy, family, and arts patronage .

The answers are a process. As participants study and integrate their experience abroad, interacting with students, colleagues and community members, they take the experience to each of their disciplines, enriching the work .

An ICISP East Asian Resource Center has been established at College of Lake County for access of materials gathered through the ICISP development of Asian Studies, supported by College of Lake County; University of Chicago, East Asian Center; and National Endowment for the Humanities. The Center can be accessed through Interlibrary loan.

The China Team is preparing a series of videos for use in the classroom. Outside of one reporting, a study of the group’s perceptions and observations, the others are short, approximately 10­minute pieces focusing on a particular aspect of China. They include at present:

Five Weeks Before the Wall:

Musings of Scholars (45 minutes)
The Great China Economic Circle (30 minutes)
Images of Women in China (10 minutes)
Classical Chinese Architecture (forthcoming)
Religion in China (forthcoming)
The Imperial Complex in Beijing (to be announced)

With thanks to:

U.S. Department of Education, Fulbright­Hays Group Projects Abroad
University of Chicago, Center for East Asian Studies
Illinois Consortium for International Studies and Programs
Beijing University, History Department
Coordination Council for North American Affairs in Chicago
Illinois Humanities Council
College of DuPage
Danville Area Community College
Kishwaukee College
Illinois State University
College of Lake County
McHenry County College
Black Hawk College
Elgin Community College
Parkland College
Pabst Brewing Company

PARTICIPANTS

Melissa Bregenzer Literature Danville Area Community College
Cecilia Carreon English Elgin Community College
Mary Coffman Literature Danville Area Community College
Fred Glaysher English Oakland University
Linda Gruber English Kishwaukee College
Curt Hulteen Psychology Black Hawk College
Peter Klassen Sociology College of DuPage
Keith Krasemann Philosophy College of DuPage
Cass McGovern Murphy Library College of Lake County
Ray Olson Sociology College of DuPage
Martha Palit History Parkland College
Louis Perez History Illinois State University
Brian Sager Economics McHenry County College
Work, Family, and Self in Chinese Society, William Parish
Dernberger, Robert F., ed., The Chinese Adapting the Past, Facing the Future, 2nd ed. An Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, The University of Michigan, 1991 .
Parish, William L. "The View from the Factory," in Ross Terrill, ed., The China Difference. New York: Harper Press, 1979.
Potter, Sulamith Heins and Jack M. Potter. China’s Peasants: The Anthropology of Revolution. Cambridge University Press, 1990.
Whyte, Martin K. and William L. Parish. Urban Life in Contemporary China. Chicago: 1984.

Economic Organizations

Byrd. William A. The Market Mechanism and Economic Reforms in China. Armonk: MESHarpe, 1991.
Elvin, Mark. The Pattern of the Chinese Past. Stanford University Press, 1973.
Far Eastern Economic Review, weekly, Hong Kong.
Feuerwerker, Albert., The Chinese Economy ca. 1970­1911. Ann Arbor Michigan Papers in Chinese Studies 1969.
Gerrefi, Gary and Donald L. Wyman. Manufacturing Miracles: Paths of Industrialization in Latin America and East Asia. Princeton, 1990.
Haggard, Stephan. Pathways from the Periphery: The Politics of Growth in the Newly Industrializing Countries. Cornell, 1990.
Huang, Yasheng. "Economic Bureaucracies and Enterprises During Reforms" China Quarterly 123 (1990):431­458.
Kwok, R. Yin­wang. W. Parish and A. Yeh. Chinese Urban Reform . Armonk: MESharpe.
Light, Ivan. Ethnic Enterprise in America: Business and Welfare Among Chinese, Japanese, and Blacks. University of California Press, 1972.
Parish, William L. "Rural industrialization: Fujian and Taiwan," in Thomas P. Lyons and Victor Nee, eds. The Economic Transformation of South China: Reform and Development in the Post­Mao Era. Cornell East Asia Program, Cornell East Asia Series No. 70, 1994.
Parish, William L. "What Model Now?" in Reinald Kwok, William Parish and Anthony Yeh, eds. Chinese Urban Reform. M.E. Sharpe, 1990.
Perkins, Dwight, "Reforming China’s Economic System" Journal of Economic Literature 26(1988):601­45.
Rawski, Evelyn S. Agricultural Change and the Peasant Economy of South China, Harvard, 1972.
Shirk, Susan. "The Political Economy of Chinese Industrial Reform," in Remaking the Economic Institutions of Socialism, Victor Nee and David Stark, eds. ch. 11 (pp. 328­364)
Skinner, G. William. "Marketing and Social Structure in Rural China," Journal of Asian Studies 24(1964):1­43, 24(1964):195­229, 25(1965):363­399.
Skinner, G. William, ed. The City in Late Imperial China. Stanford University Press, 1977.
So, Alvin. The South China Silk District: Local Historical Transformation and World System Theory. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1986.
Vogel, Ezra. The Four Little Dragons: The Spread of Industrialization in East Asia, Harvard University Press, 1991.
Walder, Andrew, "Factory and Manager in an Era of Reform," China Quarterly 1 18(1989):242­264.
Walder, Andrew, "Wage Reform and the Web of Factory Interests," China Quarterly 109(1987):22­41.
Xie, Bai­san. China’s Economic Policies. Theories and Reforms since 1949. Shanghai: Fudan University Press,, 1991.

Education/Health

Epstein, Irving, ed. Chinese Education. New York: Garland, 1991
Fei, Hsiao­tung. China’s Gentry. University of Chicago Press, 1953.
Hayhoe, Ruth, ed. Education and Modernization: The Chinese Experience. New York: Pergamon, 1992.
Ho, Ping­ti. The Ladder of Success in Imperial China: Aspects of Social Mobility, 1368­19l1, Columbia University Press, 1962.
Pepper, Suzanne. China’s Education Reform in the 1980s. Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, 1990.
Stevenson, Harold W. and James W. Stigler. The Learning Gap: Why Our Schools are Failing and What We Can Learn from Japanese and Chinese Education. New York: Summit Books, 1992.
Stevenson, H.W., Lee, S. Y., Chen C., Stigler, J. W., Hsu, C.C>, & Kitamura S. "Contexts of Achievement: A Study of American, Chinese and Japanese Children," Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial No 221, Vol. 55, Nos 1­2.
Stevenson H.W, et al, Making the Grade in Mathematics: Elementary School Mathematics in the United States, Taiwan, and Japan. Reston, Va: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1990.
Thogerson, Stig. Secondary Education in China After Mao. Aarhus University Press, 1990.
Wolf, Arthur. "Childhood Association, Sexual Attraction, and the Incest Taboo," American Anthropologist 68 (1966):883­98.

World Bank. China: Long­term Issues and Options in the Health Transition. Washington, 1992.

Equality

Griffin, Keith and Zhao Renwei, The Distribution of Income in China. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993
Rahman, Azizur R., Keith Griffin, et al., "Household Income and Its Distribution in China," in China Quarterly 132 (1992), pp. 1029­1061.
Ethnographies Fei, Hsiao­tung. Peasant Life in China, 1936.
Fei, Hsiao­tung. Chinese Village Close­up. Beijing: New World Press, 1983.
Family Life, Child Socialization, Gender
Banister, Judith. China’s Changing Population.
Croll, Elisabeth. Chinese Women Since Mao. Armonk, NYU: MESharpe, 1983.
Davis, Deborah and Stevan Harrell. Chinese Families in the Post­Mao Era. Berkeley, 1993.
Davis, Deborah and Stevan Harrell. "Symposium on Rural Family Change," in China Quarterly 130, pp. 317­39.
Lee, Yeanju, Mary Brinton, and William L. Parish "Married Women’s Employment in East Asia," 1992 Draft article.
Lin, Nan. "Chinese Family Structure and Chinese Society," Bulletin of the Institute of Ethnology. Taipei: Academia Sinica, number 65 (1988).
Parish, William L., and Nidhi Mehrotra, "Women’s work and Life Satisfaction in l aiwan," 1993. draft article.
Parish, William L. and Martin K. Whyte. Village and Family in Contemporary China. University of Chicago Press, 1978.
Potter, Sulamith Heins and Jack Potter. China’s Peasants. Cambridge, 1990.
Pruitt, Ida. A Daughter of Han: The Autobiography of a Chinese Woman. Stanford University Press, 1967.
Salaff, Janet W. Working Daughters of Hong Kong. Cambridge University Press, 198 1.
Tan, Amy. The Kitchen God’s Wife, Ivy Books (Ballantine), 1992.
Wolf, Margery, "Child Training and the Chinese Family," in Family and Kinship in Chinese Society, Maurice Freedman, ed. Stanford University Press, 1970.
Wolf, Margery, The House of Lin, New York: Appleton­Century­Crofts, 1968.
Wolf, Margery, "Women and Suicide in Taiwan," in Women in Chinese Society, Margery Wolf & Roxane Witke, eds. Stanford University Press, 1975.
Woon, Yuen­fong. "Social Change and Continuity in South China: Overseas Chinese and the Guan Lineage." in China Quarterly 118 (1989)pp. 324­344.
Interpersonal Relations
Hwang, Kwang­kuo. "Face and Favor: The Chinese Power Game," American Journal of Sociology 93(1987):944­74.
Yang, Lien­sheng. "The concept of ’pao’ as a basis of Social Religions in China" in Chinese Thoughts and Institutions, John K. Fairbank, ed. University of Chicago Press, 1957.

Minorities/Regionalism

Gladney, Dru C. Muslim Chinese: Ethnic Nationalism in the People’s Republic. Cambridge, 1991.
Personality

Bond, Michael Haris, ed. The Psychology of the Chinese People, Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1986.
Kleinman, Arthur. Social Origins of Distress and Disease: Depression, Neurasthenia, and Pain in Modern China. Yale University Press, 1986.
Kleinman, Arthur, and Tsung­yi Lin, eds. Normal and Abnormal Behavior in Chinese Culture, Reidel Publishing, 1981.

Politics

Cheng, Tunjen, and Stephan Hagard. Political Change in Taiwan. Lynne Rienner, 1992.

Li, Cheung and David Bachman, "Localism, Elitism, and Immobilism," in World Politics 42, pp. 64­94.

Oi, Jean C., "Fiscal Reform and the Economic Foundations of Local State Corporatism in china," in World Politics 45 (1992), pp. 99­126.

Oi, Jean C. "Partial Market Reform and Corruption in Rural China," in Richard Baum, ed. Reform and Reaction in Post­Mao China, (Routledge, 1991) pp. 14361 .

Oi, Jean C. State and Peasant in Contemporary China. University of California Press, 1989.

Wong, Christine, "Fiscal Reform and Local Industrialization," in Modern China 18 (1992), pp. 197

Wong, Christine. "Central­local Relations in an Era of Fiscal Decline," in China Quarterly 128(1991), pp. 691­715.

Religion

Dean, Kenneth. "Revival of Religious Practices in Fujian," in Julian F. Pas, ed. The Turning of the Tide. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1989.

MacInnis, Donald E. Religion in China Today. Maryknoll, NYU: Orbus Books, 1989.

Siu, Helen. "Recycling Rituals: Politics and Popular Culture in Contemporary Rural China." in Unofficial China: Popular Culture and Thought in the People’s Republic. Westview Press, 1989.

Wolf, Arthur, "Gods, Ghosts, and Ancestors," in Religion and Ritual in Chinese Society, Arthur P. Wolf, ed. Stanford University Press, 1974.

Yang, C.K. Religion in Chinese Society, University of California Press, 1961.

Village Studies and Comprehensive Accounts

Chan, Anita, R. Madsen and J. Unmger. Chen Village Under Mao and Deng, 2nd ed., (University of California Press, 1992) ch. 10­12.

~riedman, Edward, P. Pickowiez and M. Selden. Chinese Village, Socialist State. Yale University Press, 1991.

Huang, Shu­min. The Spiral Road. Boulder: Westview Press, 1989.

Parish, William L. and Martin K. Whyte. Village and Family in Contemporary China. University of Chicago Press, 1978.

Potter, Sulamith Heins and Jack Potter. China’s Peasants. Cambridge, 1990.

Siu, Helen. Agents and Victims in South China. Yale University Press, 1989.

The Central Role of Chinese Culture in the Modern Age

Gregory Lee

Barme, Geremie, and John Minford. Seeds of Fire: Chinese Voices of Conscience.

Chan, Chin, Inada, and Wong eds. The Big Aiiieeeee? An Anthology of Chinese American and Japanese American Literature.

Duke, Michael, Contemporary Chinese Literature: An Anthology of Post­Mao Fiction and Poetry.

Lee, Gregory, Dai Wangshu: The Life and Poetry of a Chinese Modernist.

Lee, Gregory, trans. Looking Out From Death: From the Cultural Revolution to Tiananmen Square.

Spence, Jonathan. The Gate of Heavenly Peace.

 

Comparative Analysis of the Agricultural Economics of East Asia

D. Gale Johnson

Garnaut, Ross and Kiu Guoguan, Economic Reform and Internationalisation: China and the Pacific Region. St. Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 1992.

Hayami, Yujiro. A Century of Agricultural Growth in Japan: Its Relevance to Asian Development. University of Minnesota Press, 1975.

Johnson, D. Gale. The People’s Republic of China, 1978­1990. San Francisco: ICS Press, 1990.

Johnson, D. Gale and Chi­Ming Hou. Agricultural Policy and US­Taiwan Trade. Washington, D.C.: The AEI Press, 1993.

Prybyla, Jan S. Reform in China and Other Socialist Economies (The AEI Press, 1990.

 

Economic Transformation and Political Change

Dali L. Yang

Chan, Anita, Richard Madsen, and Jonathan Unger. Chen Village Under Mao and Deng, expanded and updated edition. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

China Quarterly, no. 137 (September 1991) Special issue entitled "The State and the Individual."

Pye, Lucien. China: An Introduction.

Rosenbaum, Arthur L. State & Society in China: The Consequences of Reform. Boulder: Westview, 1992.

Wasserstrom, Jeffery, and Elizabeth Perry, eds., Popular Protest and Political Culture in Modern China. Boulder: Westview, 1992.

Yang, Dali. Calamity and Reform: The Great Leap Famine and the Transformation of Rural China. forthcoming

The Plum in the Golden Vase (Chin P’ing Mei) and the Erotic Motif in Chinese Fiction

David T. Roy.

Carlitz, Katherine. The Rhetoric of Chin P’ing Mei. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.

Dudbridge, Glen. The Hsi­yu chi: A Study of Antecedents to the SixteenthCentury Chinese Novel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

Egerton, Clement, trans. The Golden Lotus: A Translation, from the Chinese Original, of the Novel Chin P’ing Mei 4 vols. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1972.

Hanan, Pakick. trans. The Carnal Prayer Mat (Rou Putuan) New York: Ballantine Books, 1990.

Hanan, Pakick. The Chinese Vernacular Story. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981.

The Invention of Li Yu. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988.

Hawkes, David and John Minford, trans. The Story of the Stone, 5 vols.

Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1973­1986.

Hegel, Robert E. The Novel in Seventeenth Century China. New York: Columbia University Press, 1981.

Hsia, C.T. The Classic Chinese Novel. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981 .

Idema, W.L. Chinese Vernacular Fiction: The Formative Period Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1974.

Irwin, Richard Gregg. The Evolution of a Chinese Novel: Shui­hu­chuan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1966.

Li, Wai­yee. Enchantment and Disenchantment: Love and Illusion in Chinese Literature. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.

McMahon. Causality and Containment in Seventeenth Century Chinese Fiction. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1988.

Moss, Roberts. trans. Three Kingdoms: A Historical Novel Attributed to Luo Guanzhong. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

Plaks, Andrew H. Archetype and Allegory in the Dram of the Red Chamber. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976.

Plaks, Andrew H., ed Chinese Narrative: Critical and Theoretical Essays. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977.

Plaks, Andrew H. The Four Masterworks of the Ming Novel. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.

Rolston, David L., ed. How to Read the Chinese Novel. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990.

Ropp, Paul S. Dissent in Early Modern China: Ju­lin wai­shih and Ch’ing Social Criticism. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1981.

Roy, David Tod, trans. The Plum in the Golden Vase or Chin P’ing Mei, Volume One: The Gathering. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Shapiro, Sidney, trans. Outlaws of the Marsh, 2 vols. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981.

van Gulik, R. H. Sexual Life in Ancient China. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1961.

Wile, Douglas Wile, Art of the Bedchamber: The Chinese Sexual Yoga Classics Including Women’s Solo Meditation Texts. Albany: State University Of New York Press, 1992.

Yang, Hsien­yi and Gladys Yang, trans. The Scholars. New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1972.

Yu, Anthony C., trans. The Journey to the West, 4 vols . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977­1983.

Geography and the Historical Development of Urbanization in Asia, with Particular Emphasis on China. Norton Ginsburg

Ginsburg, Norton and B. Lalor, eds. China: The 80s Era. Boulder: Westview Press, 19 84 .

Ginsburg, Norton, et al., eds. The Extended Metropolis: The Settlement Transition in Asia. University of Hawaii Press, 1991.

Ginsburg, Norton. "Peking and Tientsin: The Problem of Water Supply." in N. Ginsburg, The Urban Transition: Reflections on the American and Asian Experiences (Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 1991) pp. 45­66, Appendix C.

Ginsburg, Norton. "Urbanization and Development: Processes, Policies, and Contradictions," in C.K. Leung and N. Ginsburg, eds. China: Urbanization and National Development. The University of Chicago, Department of Geography Research paper No 196), pp 259­80.

Kwok, R. Y., et all., Chinese Urban Reform: What Model Now? Armonk: MESharpe, 1990.

Leung, C.K. and N. Ginsburg, ed. China: Urbanization and National Development. The University of Chicago, Department of Geography Research Paper No. 196, 1980.

Pannell, C.W. and G. Veeck. "China’s Urbanization in an Asian Context: Forces for Metropolitanization, " in N. Ginsburg et al., eds. The Extended Metropolis: The Settlement Transition in Asia. (University of Hawaii Press, 1991), pp 3­46 and 1 13­36.

Yeung, Yue­man and Xu­wei Hu, eds. China’s Coastal Cities: Catalysts for Modernization. University of Hawaii Press, 1992.

The Historical Evolution of Family Life in China.

Patricia Ebrey

Baker, Hugh D. R. Chinese Family and Kinship. Columbia University Press, 1979.

Ebrey, Patricia, ed. Chinese Civilization: A Sourcebook. Free Press, 1993.

Ebrey, Patricia. The Inner Quarters: Marriage and the Lives of Chinese Women in the Sung Period University of California Press, 1993.

Honig, Emily and Gail Hershatter. Personal Voices: Chinese Women in the 1980s. Stanford University Press, 1988.

Wolf, Margery. Women and the Family in Rural Taiwan. Stanford University Press, 1972.

State, Intellectuals and the ’People’ in Modern China

Prasenjit Duara

Bianco, Lucien. The Origins of the Chinese Revolution. Stanford, 1972.

Duara, Prasenjit. "Superscribing Symbols: The Myth of Guandi, Chinese God of War" Journal of Asian Studies, Nov 1988.

Fairbank, John K. China: A New History. Harvard University Press, 1992.

Frieder, Jerome. Intellectuals and the State in Modern China. Free Press, 1981.

Lu Shun. Selected Stories. W.W. Norton and Co.

A Short Guide for Working with China’s Religious Traditions

Anthony C. Yu

Chan, Wing­tsit. Religious Trends in Modern China. New York: 1969.

Ch’en, Kenneth K.S. Buddhism in China, An Historical Survey. Princeton, 1964.

___. The Chinese Transformation of Buddhism. Princeton, 1973 .

Ebrey, Patricia B. Confucianism and Family Rituals in Imperial China: A Social History of Writing about Rites. Princeton, 1991.

Entry on "Chinese Religion" (including sections of an Overview, Popular Religion, Mythic Themes, Religious and Philosophical Texts, History of Study, and the Chinese New Year), in The Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. Mircea Eliade. 15 volumes. New York, 1987.

Entry on "Chinese Philosophy," ibid. 3:245­257.

Fairbank, John King, ed. The Missionary Enterprise in China and America. Cambridge, MA: 1974.

Fingarett, Herbert, Confucius: The Secular and Sacred. New York: 1972.

Jordan, David K. Gods, Ghosts, and Ancestors: Folk Religion in a Taiwanese Village, 1972. (reprint, Taipei, Taiwan, 1986)

Munro, Donald. Individualism and Holism: Studies in Confucian and Taoist Values. Michigan, 1985.

Overmyer, Daniel. Religions of China. San Francisco: 1986.

Watson, James L. & Evelyn S. Rawski, eds. Death Ritual in Late Imperial and Modern China. Berkeley, 1988.

Welch, Holmes & Anna Seidel, eds. Facets of Taoism: Essays in Chinese Religion. New Haven: 1979.

Yang, C.K. Religion in Chinese Society. A Study of Contemporary Social Functions of Religion and Some of their Historical Factors. Berkeley, 1961.

Yu, Anthony C., trans. and ed., "Introduction" to The Journey to the West (Chicago, 1978­83). 4 volumes

"Two Literary Examples of Religious Pilgrimage: The Commedia and The Journey to the West," in History of Religions 22 (1983): 202230.

"The Quest of Brother Amor: Buddhist Intimations in The Story of the Stone" in Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 49/1 (Harvard, June 1989): 55­92.


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